Introduction to Stem Cells

A stem cell has the outstanding capability to evolve in various cell types during the body’s growth and early development. They act as a repair system in tissues in which the cells divide limitlessness to restore other cells in a living body. The stem cell has two dominant features:

  • They have the capacity to renew themselves by the act of cell division.

  • They can be brought to become organ- or tissue-specific cells with specialized functionality under specific experimental or physiologic conditions.

Due to the special regeneration abilities of a stem cell, the cells provide potentiality for advanced treatment of diseases. More clinical and laboratory testing and researching are required to learn more about uses of the cells for this cause.

Different Types of Stem Cells

A stem cell is different from other cells found in the body, and there are also different kinds of stem cells. However, a stem cell maintains three primary characteristics:

Pluripotent cells are capable of rising to each of the various cell types. An embryonic stem cell is pluripotent. Multipotent cells have more limitations than pluripotent cells, but they can result in different cell types. An adult stem cell is classified in this group.

  • They can divide and renew themselves for extended durations.

  • They can divide and renew themselves for extended durations They are considered unspecialized cells (meaning that structurally the cells are not tissue-specific which would allow them to carry out specialized functions).

  • They can develop into cell types that are specialized.

Embryonic
An embryonic stem cell mostly comes from a fertilized egg that has been fecundated in vitro (in an artificial environment). The cells do not get taken from eggs fertilized in a woman’s body. The eggs are donated and only used for research with donor consent.

Tissue-specific
An adult stem cell also referred to as a somatic stem cell is thought to have localization in specific areas of tissue. The classification, “somatic,” indicates a body’s cells — differentiating from germ cells, eggs or sperm.

Induced plenipotentiary
A genetically restructured adult cell that gets factitiously made to express qualities and factors for keeping the defining characteristics of an embryonic stem cell is called an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC).


Mesenchymal
“Mesenchymal” is a term currently in use to describe a non-hematopoietic (or non-blood) adult stem cell that comes from a variety of tissues. Mesenchymal cells help facilitate natural tissue regeneration and play an integral role in vital organs being stabilized and wounds healing.